In the 1870s white Democrats wrested power back in the state legislature from the biracial coalition at the end of Reconstruction in the early 20th century the legislature passed bills to impose poll taxes followed by white primaries; these measures effectively disfranchised most blacks poor whites and Mexican Americans in the 1890s 100,000 blacks voted in the state; by 1906 only 5,000 could vote. As a result the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics from the turn of the century imposing racial segregation and white supremacy it held power until after passage in the mid-1960s of national civil rights legislation enforcing constitutional rights of all citizens, Texas lies between two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America: the Southwestern and the Plains areas Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact These were:. Harris County ESD #80 Fire Crosby FD 1% .04178, 135 Jon Rosenthal Democratic 2018 Jersey Village and southeastern segments of the Champions/FM 1960 area. . ! Southeast Texas is vulnerable to hurricanes Major hurricanes that have severely affected the area in the 21st century include Hurricane Rita in 2005; Hurricane Ike which passed over much of Houston and surrounding areas in 2008; and Hurricane Harvey which inundated Southeast Texas in 2017 Weaker storms strike the area routinely Some like Tropical Storm Allison and Tropical Storm Claudette have caused considerable damage, Main article: Texas Revolution, Skyscrapers See also: List of people from Texas and List of Texas symbols.
Houston's environmental problems stem from a long history of pollution Houston may be considered the air-conditioning capital of the world due to its hot and humid metropolitan Since the 1930s air-conditioning was built into all commercial buildings like theaters malls and corporations Even the Astrodome was air-conditioned making baseball players and fans comfortable for decades This led to the possibility of an energy crisis because of the popularity of air-conditioning in Houston energy costs are generally higher than normal, Part of the state's tradition of cowboys is derived from the massive cattle drives which its ranchers organized in the nineteenth century to drive livestock to railroads and markets in Kansas for shipment to the East Towns along the way such as Baxter Springs the first cow town in Kansas developed to handle the seasonal workers and tens of thousands of head of cattle being driven, Other Non-Christian faiths 0.5 Houston Texas Business Directory. . Houston has also seen recent improvements to the city's waterways the banks of Buffalo Bayou have been cleaned of garbage and have been turned into jogging trails and parks Since the mid-1990s Houston has seen a great increase in wildlife along the bayou due to many successful cleaning attempts the Port of Houston has not seen any major cleaning attempts, Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the 1915 Galveston hurricane Hurricane Audrey in 1957 which killed over 600 people Hurricane Carla in 1961 Hurricane Beulah in 1967 Hurricane Alicia in 1983 Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008 Tropical storms have also caused their share of damage: Allison in 1989 and again during 2001 and Claudette in 1979 among them. . .